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Asmahan el Atrache; the 64th anniversary of "The princess of the mountain'.
silvester
ramsesthesecond

Her life could be featured in an action movie, as she remains a big mystery in the history of Arabic music and Arabic politics, Asmahan is really a unique case in both artistic and real life. the episodes of her very short life are very numerous. In 32 years only, Asmahan lived a very changeful life between losing her throne as the Druz princess and regaining the lost throne, then losing and regaining it once more before finally losing it!
Not only did Asmahan had a changeful life as a royal, in fact her artistic life had several ups and downs as well.

Asmahan is also a large mystery for the role she played in World war II with the allies especially England which is still a matter of dispute until our current time!
Such a role that most people believe was the cause of her murder: ending  the life of the great artist tragically when she was only 32, in a very mysterious accident with disappearance of the main suspect!

and as if the mystery isn't enough, The accident was foresaw by a psychic man 13 years before it happened.

Asmahan was an active artist throughout 13 years (1931- 1944) during which she released more than 40 songs from which 10 are in the top hits of Arabic music since ever, starred in a movie and died during the shooting of the second.

Although she left very little artistic heritage in few years, Asmahan is considered to be one of the Top 10 Major artists of Arabic music by almost all reviews.
this article is dedicated to the memory of Asmahan el Atrache in the 64th Anniversary of her murder.

N.B: Asmahan is the youngest sister of Farid el Atrache...
for more info. review: 
So here we go:

Amal is the real name of the great artist, well known as Asmahan which is an Arabic word means (hopes) she was also called Emily yet she always preferred Amal. She is the sister of the famous artist Farid el Atrache and they were members of the Royal family of el Atrache in Druz mountain in Sweida governorate in Syria which lead the major Syrian revolution against the French occupation.
Her Father is Fahd el Atrache who was governor of the district of Demirci in Turkey, who had disagreements with Turkish authorities so he left Turkey scared from revenge, the Family took the ship to Lebanon and in the way Amal (Asmahan) was born in the 22nd of November, 1922
Her mother is Alia Bint al mounzer who was a Lebanese Druz lady.
In addition to her beloved brother Farid, with whom she enjoyed a very harmonious relationship, Amal had another 2 brothers and a sister;
Fuad ( and she suffered so much from the harsh way he always treated her with,
Anwar and Wedad, and both died as little kids
the family stayed few days in Beirut after Amal was born in El Sarasfa neighborhood with some relatives then moved to Druz mountain in Syria which is El Atrache family's homeland where they lived a happy, calm life until her father died in 1924 and the family had to move to Cairo.
and as described before in Farid's biography (see the link) their life in Faggala neighborhood in Cairo was miserable,  their mother had to sing in churches and monasteries to support the family yet still couldn't pay for her children's needs and education, so she started working as a singer in (Rhode El Farag) theaters.

Asmahan is a Turkish mane formed of 2 syllables
Asm and Han .... the second one is derived from the Turkish word (Chan) which means: the ruler or the power
so the name means; the  powerful& respectable.
Yet in Egyptian Arabic and Naive Arabic the name can have another meaning!
the first part when split sounds as (ISM) = name
Han= forgotten!
So the name in Arabic is like (the Forgotten name!) which is a pure coincidence as the name is purely Turkish
Yet the Arabic Idea of the name added somehow more mystery to the already mysterious artist's life

As a little kid in artistic Family, Asmahan used to sing with her mother in the private concerts and wedding parties, also she used to sing songs of Um Kolthoum when she was a school child.
Yet Asmahan's artistic life began, when her brother Farid, who was a new hit and famous young artist by then, hosted a famous Egyptian composer Dawoud Housni  [(1871-1937) Dawoud is the Arabic name of David] in his house, where he heard the little Amal singing in her room, so he asked her to come and sing in front of him.
he got enchanted by her sweet warm voice and asked to be her sponsor.
Dawoud told Amal that he used to train a little girl who was beautiful and talented like her but she died, so that he asked if it is O.k if he calls her Asmahan (as the name of the little dead girl) and that's how Asmahan got her artistic name.

Starting from 1931, Asmahan sang along with her brother Farid in Mary Mansour hall in Emad el Deen St, which was the most classy artistic street by then, she received very good reviews and was adored by public
the most remarkable review was by the great (Mohamed Abdel Wahab) who said," Asmahan has the voice of a grown up lady although she is only sixteen"

in 1933, Asmahan married for the first time to her cousin, Prince Hassan el Atrache and moved to Syria to live with him, such a marriage got Asmahan (Amal) her lost throne and she was declared as the Princess of the mountain for six successive years and she gave birth to one girl who was named Kamilia.
yet her marriage didn't last longer as she started having too much troubles with her husband which ended by divorce, Asmahan felt strong longing to artistic life after her first marriage ended so she returned to Cairo to restart her artistic career.

uniquely, it was so easy for Asmahan to restart her artistic career because of her beauty and warm voice, so rapidly she was singing and even found her way to movies in 1941 which was expected move to such a beautiful lady.
her first movie was (Intisar el Shabab or Victory of the Youth) and she starred along with her brother Farid by both, acting and singing.
During shooting the movie, Asmahan got introduced personally to the director Ahmed Badrkhan and their relationship evolved quickly until they got married in the same year, yet their marriage was unstable and ended so soon after few months by divorce.
by that time, Laws in Egypt didn't permit any citizen to have double natinalities, and when Asmahan was the princess of the mountain, she lost her Egyptian nationality, also her second marriage ended so rapidly that she couldn't gain back her Egyptian nationality

In 1944, Asmahan stared he second movie (Gharam wa intikam or Amour and Revenge)  starring along with Youssef  Wahbi (who was also the director), Anwar Wagdi and Beshara Wakeem, Yet Asmahan died before the end of that movie.

Asmahan's involvement in politics was another unique case in the pre- Coup d'Etat era in Egypt. Although this era was very political and had unstable governments and democracy to some extent in Egypt as what we call the Liberal period of Egypt, artistic life was somehow far from the state business, there weren't too much patriotic songs and the majority of songs and movies were mainly in romantic mood. except for few songs made by Um Kolthoum and Abdel Wahab mainly for occasions and braising the king and Egypt.
Yet this wasn't the case with Asmahan who had a real role in the world war and even had some disapparent meanings for some of her songs (see below). maybe because she actually was a real princess.
Anyway there are too much stories about the mechanism by which Asmahan worked with the Allies in world War II but this is the most credible story;

In may 1941, Asmahan met an English agent and they agreed on terms that England will help to free Syria, Palestine and Lebanon from the occupation by the French (Vicci) and Nazi German forces, if the Druze leaders allowed a safe way for the English and French (Degol) forces without a fight. Asmahan was the messenger to Druze leaders also England accepted to pay Asmahan generously for her co operation.
Asmahan did her job very well, Druz leaders accepted the terms, so Asmahan was paid very well and she re married her cousin Prince Hassan el Atrache to return the Princess of the mountain again with a fortune which she spent on a life of exorbitance but didn't forget to help the poor as well.
In its issue of the 29th of September, 1941, El Hadeith (recent news) Magazine wrote:
(Princess Amal el Atrache, by the help of god, decided to dedicate every Monday to distribute free flour on the poor)  such an evidence that Asmahan was a charitable lady.

Yet Asmahan's situation didn't remain as good as it is and again she started having troubles with her husband which ended by divorce. Her money also ended and she found herself obliged to ask for more money from the English who refused to help her any more, and during this year, General Edward Spears admitted that Asmahan was helping the English side but she is a big mouth and alcoholic and that he stopped all relationship with her.

Asmahan was in tight spot, between losing her throne again and the end of her money also the loss of the Egyptian nationality, so she had to wait for any chance which came true when she met the Egyptian actor Ahmed Salem and married him to move with him back to Cairo from Jerusalem where she was living after her divorce from prince Hassan.

yet this time her marriage wasn't stable at all, it was like mad relationship. even the husband (Ahmed Salem) shot fire in one of their fights and injured one of his friends which was an officer who wanted to help them clear their fights, and injured himself by a shot in his lung!
Ahmed Salem always complained of Asmahan's disobedience!!

in 1944, during the shooting of her second and last movie (Gharam Wa intikam = Amour and revenge) Asmahan asked fpr the director " Youssef Wahbi's permission to leave Cairo for a short vacation in Ras el Bar (a city on the Mediterranean) and he accepted.
she took one of her friends, Mary Kladah, with her in the 14th of July 1944 for the vacation, but the driver ((LOST CONTROL)) on the wheel so the car dropped in Tere't el Sahel ( a small branch from the Nile) both Asmahan and her friend were killed in the accident.
However, the driver survived, then Disappeared and wasn't found at all during the investigation or even till now!

There are so many suspects in the Case of Asmahan's death between:
1- The English intelligence, as Asmahan already knew too much!
2- The King Farouk, Because Asmahan rejected him!
3- Her Husband, Ahmed Salem, with whom she had a very nasty relationship!

Her death pushed Youssef Wahbi to change the plot of the movie, as she died before finishing her role, the movie was about a lady whose husband gets killed by one of his enemies, whom wasn't found guilty by the police investigations, but the lady (played by Asmahan) was 100% positive that he is the murderer, so she tries to get her revenge from him
She tries to seduce him until he really loves her, although she also falls for him,yet she takes her revenge from him in the end

but as Asmahan died and her role wasn't finished, the plot changed that, the Lady seduces the man who loves her, and she falls for him, but she dies and he can't imagine losing her so he loses his mind and enters a psychiatric facility.
it feels like part of the truth, that Artistic life went mad after the Tragic loss of the still young artist, her death was a real tragedy!

As silly as it seems, some people tried to accuse the great Um Kolthoum for killing Asmahan, which is a very dumb accusation,
Abd Allah Ahmed Abd Allah, (a journalist) cleared that the accusation is totally made up, and that Um Kolthoum loved Asmahan and loved her voice, she even used to invite Asmahan to her house and ask Asmahan to sing her songs.
Um Kolthoum is totally innocent, or else we would have seen other singers die, maybe like Fairouz! who became very popular during Um kolthoum's life
besides, all a long her life, Um Kolthoum was always number one, so she never cared who becomes a new hit!

Strangely, Asmahan herself was passing by her car in the same site where she will die 4 years earlier, in 1940, she was escorted by the journalist (Mohamed el Tab'ey) from (Akher Sa'ah or the last hour) magazine, and was reading a poem wrote by the great poet (Abou el Alaa' el Ma'ry) as she was about to sing it after being composed by Sheikh Zakareya Ahmed....
Once the car passed by the same site, and there was a pumping machine, Asmahan  Screamed and threw the paper from her hand, and when the journalist asked her about that, she told him that once she heard this pumping machine, she felt as hearing the drums of a funeral and that she felt very uncomfortable and afraid!

in the beginning of her Artistic life, a psychic man called (El Asieoty) predicted that Asmahan will be the Victim of an accident and will die under water.... 13 years before her death!!!! WOW

Asmahan's death was a major shock for the whole Egypt. she is the first case of a sudden death of a major artist and till now she remains the only case of accidental death or shall we say (Murder) for a young artist in the Arabic media history.

Till now, after 64 years of her death, gossip never stopped and questions are always asked, WHO KILLED ASMAHAN?  is a question every one wished to get an answer for, the list of accused persons keeps expanding and the case will never be solved
If I may imagine Egyptian cinema as a beautiful lady, I will I imagine Asmahan's death as the reason her heart was broken!

Yet the largest effect Asmahan's death caused was on her most beloved friend and brother, Farid who first knew about her tragic death  when he was in a horse race and just after his horse won the race.
Farid couldn't believe the news, had an Anginal attack and stayed at his house... 
Faridnever forgot this day, he also felt very guilty for his sister's death as he thought that gambling was the reason of his sister's death. it was Asmaha's death that stopped Farid's nasty gambling habits but it also broke his heart for the rest of his life

in 13 years only, Asmahan had major artistic influence in the Arab world. Although she died so early, yet her remarkable beauty and very warm voice made her short 13 years like hundreds of years in artistic life. she is one of the Major 10 artists in the history of Arabic music and she left major hits from which 10 songs are recognized of the most important songs in Arabic music.

Few albums were released for her music mainly because her legacy isn't so large but she remained a major source for songs in every collective album dedicated to Arabic music, especially her master piece " Lialy el ons fe Vienna"
I could fine only one album for Asmahan called (Le coeur A Ses Raisons or the hear has its reasons) released in France for Asmahan's loyal listeners.

although she only starred in 2 movies, yet her name is very famous, her beauty was remarkable and the movies were a large success, especially the second because of her death and that the most beautiful songs Asmahan sang were released as soundtrack for that movie.
in her songs, she didn't stick to one composer no matter how famous he was (unlike her brother), so she co operated with the major composers of her time, who constitute the major composers in the history of Arabic music,

she sang for Mohamed Abdel Wahab, Reyadh el Sonabty, Dawoud Hosni (who discovered and sponsored her from the start) and her brother Farid el Atrache who composed the majority of her songs... and the majority of her top hits as well.
also she sang for major poets of Arabic recent era of poetry like : Ahmed Rami, El Akhtal el Sagheir, Badii' Khayri, Ma'moun el Schenawy.
Although she left so soon, she will never be forgotten, she will always live in our hearts
her death mystery was never solved, as if it is the suitable end of a very strange life of a major artist and patriot princess
Asmahan :
              May she rest in peace in a very beautiful kingdom in heaven, where she just sings away from any mystery!

Although it won't be displayed until 2 months later, Asmahan Tv show already started making lots of troubles and appearances on newspapers.
As Prince Hassan el Atrach accused the writer of faking history and threatened of sueing the producing company who already spent millions on the show, 
yet the problem was solved and Prince hassan alowed the show to cast in the original place where Asmahan lived as the princess of the mountain
Soulaf Fawakhergy will star as Asmahan in the Egyptian Tv show (she is also syrian!)

Now to her music:
1- The first is her most beautiful and famous master piece, a song with so much disapparent lines and political meanings, being released in the peak of World War II in (1944)... And was dedicated to the Austrian Capital (Vienna) from the lyrics of the great poet (Ahmed Rami), Asmahan surprised her fans by singing for a Eiropean city for the first time in Arabi music which was used to only praise Arabic cities!
the lyrics were to make anyone think that Vienna is a paradise in the same time when the city was almost destroyed by the Nazis! 
The song is classic in Arabic music (one of the top 10 songs in Arabic music since ever!) and it made Vienna an Arabian fantasy!
once you say Vienna in any Arab country, people say Asmahan directly..... From the melodies of Farid el Atrache... Asmahan sang 
LialyelOnsfeVienna.mp3  or (Lialy El Ons Fe Vienna = Fun nights are great in Vienna) and it was released as soundtrack in her last movie (Gharam wa intikam or Amour and revenge) in 1944 (few days before her death!)
(Chorus)
Fun nights are great in Vienna,
It's atmosphere comes directly from paradise.
Melodies echo differently in the air,
When birds hear them, they cry and sing!
.................................................................
Asmahan
In between the sound of crushing cups and the echo of melodies,
The amazing bodies dance ( Oh sweet lord by gentel on me!)
The whole joy of the soul and eye was reached
Go on, let your heart enjoy!
Here are lovers on both sides
What is left to paradise?

Enjoy your youth in Vienna
Vienna is a garden of paradise
Melodies echo differently in the air
So when birds hear them, they cry and sing
.................................................................
Just a joyful hour, but if you get it, you'll forget the whole world
What will remain from this whole joy for you except its fun;
Except shadows that flow with illusions, ghosts that run with dreams
So why do let days pass without enjoying them!?

It's a fun night in Vienna!
Vienna's atmosphere comes directly from paradise.
Melodies echo differently in the air
So when birds hear them, they cry and sing!
.................................................................
Cheer up! Listen to the music! Cheer up! and drink!
Send you hear to swim and fly in the ((flood of life)) which -they say- is a mate!
A mate with whom you feel happy, enjoy loving
And enjoy your heart's youth 

Vienna is a garden of paradise
I pray for your nights to be even happier
Melodies echo differently in the air
so when birds hear them, they cry and sing!
..................................................................

2- from (Gharam wa intikam = Amour and revenge) movie soundtrack, the song featured in the video above.... (Emta hate'raf Emta = When ever will you know?)  composed by Mohamed el Kasabgy and lyrics by The prince of all poets (Ahmed Shawky).. EmtaHate_rafEmta.mp3
Asmahan (starts by Chorus)

When ever will you know that I love you? (twice)
When will you know that I love you, Yes You?
when will you know! when will you know!
........................................
(in the original Scenario of the movie)

Beshara Wakeem: do you hear? the words are for you my neighbor!
Youssef Wahbi: Afendem (excuse me!) are you talking to me!?
Beshara Wakeem: What!! No, I am sorry, I am hallucinating, talking to myself!
........................................
Asmahan

I call your shadow and wish to see you
Yet, you were never compassionate on me, nor replied my calls
How long are you gonna confuse my mind and torture my heart.
Your love fills my mind, my soul and my blood.

(Chorus repeated)
........................................
(in the original scenario of the movie)

Beshara Wakeem: See! that declartion of love is for you!
Youssef Wahbi: I don't understand anything
Beshara Wakeem: yes, you don't, I understand everything!
........................................
Asmahan

I kept hiding your love inside my heart.
I kept calming my heart, consoling it from the fire burning it
I was so afraid to tell you about my condition or explain my love to you
as your heart might be busy then my heart will be in agony
your love fills my mind, my soul and my blood

(chorus repeated)
........................................
as you made me love you and wish to be near to you,
then make me happy by meeting even for one day,
when you'll be merciful and accept my love!
and to taste my love that I previously explained to you by my eyes
What if your heart was busy, then my heart will be in agony
Your love fills my mind, my soul and my blood

(chorus repeated)
........................................

3- The third is another master piece for Asmahan, mostly played in spring festivals as it is a celebration of Roses ElWard.mp3 or (roses)
Asmahan (starts by chorus)

Oh, How gorgeous roses are! How beautiful roses are!  (twice)
From their charm, people were inspired to describe beautiful cheeks
Roses! roses! Oh how beautiful roses are!

(chorus repeated)
..........................................................

Red roses' color inspires you about missing and inftuation, (twice)
Oh be gentle my most Gentle lord!
Yellow roses' smell inspire you about jealousy and love pains,
Oh be merciful my compassionate lord!
And White roses mean chastity and its smell means amour (romance)
Go on! Pick them oh honourable man!

[Roses are the messenger of paramours (Lovers),
the guide of the longings!] (all twice)
Roses Roses Roses roses Roses! how beautiful roses are!

(chorus repeated)
..........................................................

Roses are the messenger of paramours.... etc)
(chorus repeated)
..........................................................

Don't forget your roses oh Gardener, (twice)
careful or their thistles will injure you,
and wake up the nights taking care of them.
.....................
Call your love oh paramour (twice)
or your missing will put you in agony
and be gentle with him/her
...................
[oh paramour gift your love with roses,
and you will be refreshed by his longing!] (3 times)
And Kiss his/her hands. (3 times)

[Roses are the messenger of paramours (Lovers),
the guide of the longings!]  (all twice)
Roses Roses Roses roses Roses! how beautiful roses are!

(chorus repeated)
.............................................................

4- the forth, is Ahwa... back to Farid el Atrache's melodies and lyrics of (Ma'moun el Schenawy) and was released in the second movie (Gharam wa intikam or Amour and revenge) it is a major master piece for Asmahan and was a mjor hit in Arabic music history   asmahan_ahwa.mp3   N.B: Ahwa means (I love ) in Naive Arabic , also (Coffe in Egyptian Arabic) [ Version of (Le Coeur A Ses Raison Album)
N.B:
Ahwa = Coffe (Egyptian Arabic from the naive arabic word Kahwah),
Ahwa = I love (both Egyptian and Naive Arabic) 
(according to the meaning of the sentence!)
...........................................................
Asmahan (starts by chorus)
Coffe, Coffe, I love [Ahwa Ahwa... ana Ahwa!]
I will serve coffee with my own hands to whoever says,"I love"  (Twice)
I Love , I love [Ana Ahwa]
...........................................................
I love the moon, get drunk by its light
and spend all of my nights with it
[It (the moon) makes my heart euphoric
and turns the whole world to whispers and secrets (gossips)] (all twice)
the whole world becomes whispers and secrets
....
I will serve coffee with my own hands to whoever says,"I love"
I Love , I love [Ana Ahwa]
............................................................
[oh you, who  spends the whole nights a wake
If I serve you a cup,]   (all twice)
[you'll find the cure in it (the cup),
and life will be better] (all twice)
life will be better
....
I will serve coffee with my own hands to whoever says,"I love"
I Love , I love [Ana Ahwa]
............................................................

[oh you, who  spends the whole nights a wake .... etc) (part2 repeated)
............................................................
get your pains far away from your soul
what will you gain of these except crying
[this whole universe is worth nothing,
so what's the use of complaining?] (alltwice)
so what's the use of complaining?
....

I will serve coffee with my own hands to whoever says,"I love"
I Love , I love [Ana Ahwa]
.............................................................

5-  the fifth is another major hit, from the lyrics and melodies of Midhat Assem : asmahan_ya_habibi_taala.mp3  or (Oh my love come!)
released as a song, not in a movie. (Le Coeur A ses Raison Album version)
Asmahan (starts by chorus)

Oh my love come, rescue me, see how much I am hurt!.....
by your absence!
My agony makes me awake all night calling your shadow,!.....
-Lucky You!-
while I represseing my amour. so it's killing me.
And I don't have a father, mother or uncle to hear my complaint.....
from the fire of your love
....................................................................
My soul, heart, body, mind and beauty.....
are in your hands!
I am confused what shall I do for your cuddle(teasing).....
and refusal!
Why shall I repress my amour, it is already killing me
I will complain, cry, and tell my story hoping........
To soften yout heart
....................................................................
(chorus repeated)
....................................................................
I sent messages and wrote letters to complain......
and beg you.
I kept silent, patient and accepted your behavior .....
From the start,
while I was repressing my amour, so it's killing me
I pay my soul, my family and my money for you ...
yet you never ask about me!
....................................................................
my soul, heart, body, mind and beauty ......
are in your hands!
I am confused what shall I do for your cuddle(teasing).....
and refusal!
Why shall I repress my amour, it is already killing me
I will complain, cry, and tell my story hoping........
To soften yout heart
....................................................................
(chorus repeated)
....................................................................

6- and we go religious in the sixth song, with a pure Islamic song from Asmahan that assures that the major artist's family was muslim as her brother Farid always confirmed (despite the Druz origin) from the lyrics of Badi' Khairy (بديع خيري) and her brother (Farid el Atrache)'s melodies asmahan_aleik_salat_allah.mp3 Or (Prayers of God upon you "Oh Mohamed") [ Le Coeur A Ses Raison Album version)

The song is a celebration of the Pilgrimage of Islam I Recommed it 100% to whoever needs to see a piece of Islam's beauty and charm!
(Asmahan starts by chorus)
May prayers and greetings of Allah be upon you, (twice)
We seek forgivness, Oh the Grandpa of El Hassanein 
Pilgrimage's time returned, Camels started moving (I.e.to Mecca)
Seeing it is my eye and makes days beautiful
...........................................
(chorus repeated)
...........................................
Part1:
For Allah's sake, Oh the rider for Mecca
who will wander around the Kaaba,
Kiss the earth there for me,
Please for the sake of a Longing believer;
who sobbed tears and prayed too much
in so longing to get his dreams
of visiting your mosque towards which he prays, Oh Prophet!
May prayers and greetings of Allah be upon you
...........................................
(chorus repeated)
...........................................
Part 2:
When ever will my eyes enjoy your sight,
Oh the two Minarets on the Harameen?
get the Hajjis pless when they drank from Zamzam's water,
and the joy they got in Medina when they were accepted in the prophet Taha's light
How lucky his visitors are to enjoy his generosity
May prayers and greetings of Allah be upon him.
...........................................
(chorus repeated)
...........................................
Part 3:
How happy whoever prayed (Kabbar) to Allah on Menna and Arafat
and threw the stones and expressed his loyal return to Allah is!
As all of his sins were erased for all of his life
and he lived the rest of his life plessed by his faith and prayers
in the mosque of the prophet  and his standing
May prayers and greetings of Allah be upon him
...........................................
(Chorus repeated)
...........................................
Lots of N.B!!
1- in the Chorus:
the Grandpa of el Hassanein is the prophet Mohamed, his daughter Fatema's sons were called (el Hassan and el Hussein) may Allah bless them all, the name was one of the prophet's favorite names as he loved his family.
2- in part 2:
el Harameen are two of the most holly three mosques in Islam (Harameen = the Kaaba in Mecca & the Prophet's mosque in Medina) the third one is El Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.
3- in part 2:
Zamzam is a holly well in Mecca
4- in Part 2:
Taha is another name of the prophet may Allah pless his soul
 5- in part 3:
Kabbar is a special prayer in Islam, the prayers say (Allah Akbar = Allah is the greatest)
6- in part 3:
Menna and Arafat are two holly places in Saudia... Arafat is a mountain... Muslim's pilgrimage include praying in both places
7- in part 3:
threw the stones: as in both Menna and Arafat there are two rocks as a symbol of the Satan, Muslim Hajjis threw it with small stones as a representation of their regret on the sins and their return to god.
8- Islamic pilgrimage includes praying in Mecca, Menna, Mozdalefa and Arafat.


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